We see no reason why state tax evasion, when proven to be sufficiently similar to the convicted crime, should not be included in the § 2T1.1 calculation of "tax loss." At the outset, we note that the four circuits that have considered this issue have held that state tax offenses may be included with state tax evasion in the total loss calculation. 16 The Fourth, Fifth and Sixth circuits, in particular, interpret U.S.S.G. § 1B1.3(a)(2) as allowing state tax evasion totals to be included with federal tax evasion amounts where there was a "common scheme or plan" and the same "course of conduct" for the state and federal offenses.
The plain language of Application Note 2 [to S.G. § 2T1.1] requires that a sentencing court factor relevant conduct into a total tax loss calculation. Thus, contrary to the defendants' suggestion, no ambiguity exists as to whether relevant conduct is to be considered in calculating § 2T1.1 tax losses.
In determining whether state tax evasion constitutes relevant conduct, we look to the commentary to § 1B1.3. Section 1B1.3 provides specific factors to be considered in determining whether certain conduct was part of a "common scheme or plan" or the "same course of conduct." "For two or more offenses to constitute part of a common scheme or plan, they must be substantially connected to each other by at least one common factor, such as common victims, common accomplices, common purpose, or similar modus operandi." See U.S.S.G. § 1B1.3 cmt. n.9. "Factors that are appropriate to the determination of whether offenses are sufficiently connected or related to each other to be considered as part of the same course of conduct include the degree of similarity of the offenses, the regularity (repetitions) of the offenses, and the time interval between the offenses." Id.
Friday, November 27, 2009
Relevant Conduct in Federal Tax Case Includes State Tax Loss
In United States v. McElroy ___ F.3d ___ (1st Cir. 2009) which I discussed previously here, the Court addressed the issue of whether state tax loss can be included in the tax loss for a federal tax crimes conviction. This issue is not particularly controversial, but students and practitioners in this area must be aware that this is a danger that lurks in criminal tax prosecutions. I include some of the court's discussion (footnote and case citations omitted):